In atmospheres containing nitrogen oxides (NOx, a common pollutant) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone can be created in the presence of sunlight. Although ozone is critical in the high atmosphere to protect against ultraviolet (UV) light, low level ozone is implicated in impacts as diverse as crop damage and increased incidence of asthma and other respiratory complaints. Photochemical ozone creation potential (also known as summer smog) for emission of substances to air is calculated with the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) trajectory model (including fate) and expressed using the reference unit, kg ethene (C2H4) equivalent.
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